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    Ongoing Studies

    In this section, you will find information concerning the six ongoing evaluation studies. In time, their full reports will be available for download from here.

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    3Cs Defined

    During a workshop that was held in Brussels in 2003, the European Union's Heads of Evaluation Taskforce agreed upon definitions for each C. In this section, these definitions are shown.

    The Community's competence in the field of development co-operation was only established in law by adoption of the Maastricht Treaty in 1992. The Treaty created a constitutional basis for development co-operation policies, and formalises the existence of a European development policy functioning in liaison with those of Member States, while recognising their interdependence. It revolves in essence around aspects of the so-called "3Cs", while distinct concepts are also inter-related. However, the Treaty is not always clear or free from ambiguities.

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    Organisations involved

    In this section of the website you may find information on the different organisations which are involved in the 3C evaluation initiative.  

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    Community of Practice

    In this section of Three-Cs.net, you may get more information on the current community of practice around coordination, complementarity and coherence. You may also view more information on the consultants who are involved in the six studies.

    If you have been working on the 3C's and would like to be included in this list, please contact us. In line with the purpose of the website, any reports/publications that have resulted out of your work have to be publicly available.

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    News and Events

    In this section you will find recent 3C related news and events - these items complement the ones which are included in the 3C Newsletter


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    This initiative was launched by the Heads of Evaluation of the EU member States and the European Commission.

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    This website is maintained by the European Centre for Development Policy Management  

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Welcome to this site

N.B. The 3Cs evaluation initiative was formally concluded in June 2008. This site gives access to all evaluation outputs and relevant related documents and will serve as an archive, while no longer being updated.
The Heads of Evaluation for External Cooperation of the EU Member States and the European Commission have initiated a series of joint evaluation studies with a view:

1: To explore and assess the role played by the Maastricht Treaty precepts of coordination, complementarity and coherence (3Cs) in the EU's development co-operation policies and operations; and

2: To determine how far these have been applied in practice and with what impact.

This website gives access to the six final reports from the 3Cs evaluation initiative and is a key electronic resource on coordination, complementarity and coherence for development. -> More information on the initiative.

For comments or questions relating to this website, please contact the website's manager Niels Keijzer at three-cs(at)ecdpm.org

News and Events

Triple C Evaluations 8 - Evaluating Co-ordination, Complementarity and Coherence in EU development policy: a synthesis

This synthesis paper was drawn up by the European Centre for Development Policy Management (ECDPM) on invitation by the EUHES, and sets out the main policy conclusions of the six evaluations of the 3Cs.


Three-Cs Information Brief No. 6: Evaluation of Coordination and Complementarity of European Assistance to Local Development

This Information Brief presents the main findings of a joint-evaluation study focusing on the performance of European Member States and the European Commission with respect to their coordination of assistance to local development.


Three-Cs Information Brief No. 5: EU Institutions & Member States’ Mechanisms for Promoting Policy Coherence for Development

This Information Brief introduces the most important findings and key recommendations of the joint evaluation on EU mechanisms promoting Policy Coherence for Development.


European Commission working paper: "EU Report on Policy Coherence for Development"

The European Commission has adopted the European Union's first Report on Policy Coherence for Development (PCD).


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